An Anticipation Guide includes a list of 8-10 statements related to a topic of study. Prior to introducing new information, engage students by having them write whether or not they AGREE or DISAGREE with the statements listed on the guide in a column to the left of the statements. After the new content has been taught, have students react to the new information by responding again to the statements on the Anticipation/Reaction Guide in a column to the right. Discuss why their before and after answers are different. Extend the activity by having students explain their attitudes and belief before the lesson and how their mindset changed after the lesson. Resource: Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
A KWL chart is used prior to the study of new material, a discussion, a reading, or an event. Students are asked to brainstorm all of the things you either know, think you know or want to know about a particular topic. The Chart is typically set up in three columns with the letters K,W,L at the top of each. See template by clicking this link. (You will need MS Word installed to view the download.) KWL Template Resource: Ogle, Donna M., The Reading Teacher Vol. 39, No. 6 (Feb., 1986), pp. 564-570 Published by: International Reading Association Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20199156
Students create an acrostic by placing the name of a topic or concept vertically down the paper. Students generate a word or phrase that begins with each letter of the vertical word.
Students respond to the following related to a particular topic: 3 things that interest me about the topic, 2 things I'd like to know more about the topic, 1 idea they have about the topic. Resource: Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All (2nd ed.), by Gayle H. Gregory and Carolyn Chapman. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, www.corwinpress.com
A variation of brainstorming, Five Words asks students, working on their own, to list five words that come to mind when they think of a particular topic. Students then get into pairs, trios, or groups of four to share and discuss their words. Each group selects three of the best words to share and explain to the entire class. Resource: http://www.cobbk12.org/cheathamhill/LFS%20Update/activatingstrategies.htm
To set up the Walking Tour, choose passages, pictures, or statements for a topic. Place one per chart. Number each chart and post the charts around the room. In small groups, each group is given a particular color marker to record their ideas. Students then spend 2-5 minutes at each chart, reading, discussing, interpreting, and reacting to the idea in writing. The groups move from chart to chart until they have visited all of the charts. When the "tour groups" have finished, have the students discuss and summarize the charts with the entire group. Resource: Lipton, L., & Wellman, B. (1998). Patterns and practices in the learning-focused classroom. Guilford, Vermont: Pathways Publishing.
Prior to the beginning of class, the teacher will prepare questions related to the topic of study and write them on sticky notes. Four to five questions are usually enough. Sticky notes are placed underneath student desks/chairs so that they are hidden from view. At the start of the class, inform students that several of them are sitting on "Hot Seats" and will be asked to answer questions related to the topic of study for the day. Students who have questions on sticky notes will then take turns reading the question and attempting to provide an answer. Resource: Instructional Strategies for Engaging Learners: Guilford County Schools TF, 2002
At the beginning of a unit or topic of study, ask students to jot down what they already know about a topic on an index card. On the first side of the postcard, students draw a picture of the topic. (On the back, they will wait until lesson is over and write what they have learned as a summary activity.) Resource: http://www.cobbk12.org/cheathamhill/LFS%20Update/activatingstrategies.htm
A collection of key terms or concepts taken from the content or topic of study. The terms selected represent important ideas and vocabulary. Student make predictions and generate statements about the topic. Finally, the students correct information after formal study of the material.Resource: http://www.missionempower.org/learning-strategies/word-splash (W. Dorsey Hammond, Oakland University, Detroit)
The teacher generates about ten words related to the lesson. Students create 5 possible sentences by using two words or more in each sentence until all words are gone. Resource: Moore, D.W., & Moore, S.A. (1986). Possible sentences. In Reading in the content areas: Improving classroom instruction 2nd edition, edited by E.K. Dishner, T.W. Bean, J.E. Readence, and D.W. Moore. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Description: In this activity, students have the chance to classify topics, words, and phrases into categories. The process of sorting and classifying strengthens the student's ability to comprehend and retain difficult information. Through a discussion of possible solutions, students negotiate the contextual meaning of the topics, words, or phrases they are sorting. Procedure: 1. Generate a list of words related to the topic for review. These words should fall into one of the following categories: Important Characteristics, Uses, Examples, and Non-Examples. (Hint: These categories can be changed to accommodate your topic of study.) 2. Make a copy of both of the word list and the Frayer Model graphic organizer on transparency paper. 3. Cut out the words on the word list and store in a zip-lock bag when not in use. 4. Lay the graphic organizer on an overhead projector. 5. Place word list words in the center of the graphic organizer one at a time (jumble the order) allowing students to identify the appropriate quadrant location for the word. Hint: When using this as a warm-up activity, allow students to make errors that will be corrected as you teach your lesson. When using this as a review activity, identify mistakes and re-teach topics when students make errors. Resource: Bob Moore, Robeson County Schools, NC 2008
A- an adjective or two that describes what they learned, E – emotion describing how it made them feel, I – something they found interesting, O – something that made them say “Oh!”, U – write a question that you want to learn more about. Resource: http://www.eschoolnews.com/2016/02/04/5-ways-to-make-the-most-of-virtual-field-trips/
As students enter, give them word choices for using this vocabulary development tool. Students use a graphic organizer to categorize their knowledge about a word. Squares with 4 to 6 blocked spaces work well. Resource: http://www.worksheetworks.com/miscellanea/graphic-organizers/frayer.html
Have students find a word important to the lesson by posting or passing out sentences in which a word is hidden. For example: The school mouse ate a cherry for her morning snack. In this sentence is the hidden word TEACHER (The school mouse aTE A CHERry for her morning snack.)
A prereading strategy designed to evaluate students’ prior knowledge of a topic by having them rate how well they know the content vocabulary words. The vocabulary words are presented and students rate each word with a number—1 know it well enough to define it, 2 think I know it, 3 have heard it or have seen it, and 4 no clue. Teacher can then identify how much prereading instruction will be necessary for critical reading as well as identifying words for explicit vocabulary instruction. It also allows the teacher to differentiate instruction based on a student’s need.
Give out pop quiz, an assessment given without notice (graded or non-graded), as they enter the classroom or display on board. It is sometimes used as a review (non-graded), and is definitely used to motivate students to study each day. Periodic pop quizzes can be used during the formative assessment process to monitor student learning and adjust instruction during a lesson or unit. Constructive quizzes will not only furnish teachers with feedback on their students, but they serve to help students evaluate their own learning. The process is outlined in the document below. By using quizzes to furnish students with immediate feedback, the teacher can quickly determine the status of each student in relation to the learning targets, and students can learn more during the discussions that immediately follow the quizzes, instead of having to wait until the next day to see the results of the assessment in the form of a meaningless grade on the top of a paper. The teacher should use the results of these quizzes to adjust instruction immediately based on student outcomes.
Assign to each student upon entering class a section, paragraph, page etc. for reading or looking at material quickly to gain an overview of the content. Skimming and scanning are two very different strategies for speed reading. They are each used for different purposes, and they are not meant to be used all the time. They are at the fast end of the speed reading range, while studying is at the slow end. People who know how to skim and scan are flexible readers. They read according to their purpose and get the information they need quickly without wasting time. They do not read everything which is what increases their reading speed. Their skill lies in knowing what specific information to read and which method to use.Skimming refers to looking only for the general or main ideas, and works best with non-fiction (or factual) material. With skimming, your overall understanding is reduced because you don’t read everything. You read only what is important to your purpose. Skimming takes place while reading and allows you to look for details in addition to the main ideas. Unlike skimming, when scanning, you look only for a specific fact or piece of information without reading everything. You scan when you look for your favorite show listed in the cable guide, for your friend’s phone number in a telephone book, and for the sports scores in the newspaper. For scanning to be successful, you need to understand how your material is structured as well as comprehend what you read so you can locate the specific information you need. Students may also take notes, share with a partner, or discuss with class.
Hand out a mini-survey at the beginning of a unit, topic, etc. that asks for opinions and knowledge concerning the subject material. Students love to tell what they already know about a subject. They also like to express their personal opinion. Surveys give them a chance to do just that. It also gives the teacher good indicators about what prior knowledge students may already have. Some teachers like to start by finding out if their students really know what a survey is. They then explain the basics of surveys before doing a trial survey with their students. Others find that their students have better attention for the lesson when the teacher “walks them through” a real survey first. Using online surveys gives real time instant feedback. Resource: http://www.polleverywhere.com/
Purpose: This strategy is used to elicit student’s prior knowledge and allow students to make real world connections in order to motivate them to read and comprehend new texts. Description: Providing visual images before reading a lesson allows students to create a mental picture which will help facilitate the reading of new material. These mental images will help students process what they will read. This strategy allows students to respond to visual imagery through written exercises and whole group discussion. Students become more engaged in their learning process by making real world connections and by using their own imaginations. Procedure: 1. Select a vivid photograph, picture, artwork, or image that will introduce or extend the concepts related to the particular area of study. Your textbook, reference book, newspapers, magazines, web sites, etc., are excellent resources. 2. Share the picture with students by using a data projector or large poster or a site like Voice Thread. 3. Ask students to write down their individual thoughts and reactions to the image. 4. Model how to make personal and real world connections. Encourage students to examine the image for details. 5. After students have been allowed time for their written responses, ask for volunteers to share their entries with the rest of the class. Encourage students to respond to each other in collaborative pairs. 6. Share the old saying “A picture is worth a thousand words”. Ask students why that may apply to the image you are sharing. Probe further “Why would that apply to this image?” 7. Use students responses to help introduce the new concepts to be studied. Resource: North Carolina Teacher Academy Literacy Coach Reading in the Content Area Participant Manual (2007)